[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 8, Issue 1 (1-2019) ::
wjps 2019, 8(1): 69-77 Back to browse issues page
Iranians’ Perspective to Cosmetic Surgery: A Thematic Content Analysis for the Reasons
Nahid Mozaffari Niya , Majid Kazemi , Farrokh Abazari , Fazlollah Ahmadi
Nursing Research Center , Razi Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery , Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Abstract:   (237 Views)

Currently, becoming beautiful is a value among Iranian society, although experts have suggested several complications of cosmetic surgery, but decision to have these surgeries has been dramatically increased in recent years. This increase has imposed high workload and costs on the health care system of the country. This study was conducted to explore the reasons why people perform cosmetic surgery in an Iranian context.
Twenty-one subjects from both sexes who were 22-52 year-old and had undergone face plastic surgery between 1-5 years ago were enrolled and semi-structured data was collected via open interviews, while qualitative content were analyzed utilizing conventional analysis methods. Data analysis considered the theme “my face, my destiny” which contained 2 subcategories of “obtaining a chance for a better life “and” obtaining acceptance in society”.
The participants considered cosmetic surgery as a blessing from God that played a major role in their future, so they accepted the risks of the surgery.
Understanding experiences of these individuals may help health care team particularly nurses to consult them and other individuals who might think about doing cosmetic surgery through education to help them make a better decision for to do cosmetic surgery.

Keywords: Face, Destiny, Content analysis, Decision, Cosmetic surgery, Iran
Full-Text [PDF 335 kb]   (128 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: General
Received: 2016/08/12 | Accepted: 2017/08/29 | Published: 2019/03/13
1. Zare B, Javadi F, Naseri S. Does It Make Me Beautiful? A Focus Group Discussion on Cosmetic Surgery. International Journal of Applied Sociology 2014;4:126-32.
2. Rongmuang D, McElmurry BJ, McCreary LL, Park CG, Miller AG, Corte C. Regional differences in physical appearance identity among young adult women in Thailand. West J Nurs Res 2011;33:106-20. doi: 10.1177/0193945910381762. [DOI:10.1177/0193945910381762]
3. koohi k, Alizadeh M. The Modeling of The Causes of Women's Tendency to Cosmetic Surgery With Using Lisrel Software. scientific journal of ilam university of medical sciences 2013;21:87-95.
4. Herruer JM, Prins JB, van Heerbeek N, Verhage-Damen GW, Ingels KJ. Negative predictors for satisfaction in patients seeking facial cosmetic surgery: a systematic review. Plast Reconstr Surg 2015;135:1596-605. Doi: 10.1097/prs.0000000000001264. [DOI:10.1097/PRS.0000000000001264]
5. Tiggemann M [Internet]. Sociocultural perspectives on human appearance and body image. c2011. Available from: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2011-20792-002
6. American Society of Plastic Surgeons [Internet]. Plastic surgery statistic report. c2012. Available from: http://www.Plasticsurgery.org/Newsand- Resources/Press-Released-Archives/2013.
7. International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery [Internet]. ISAPS international survey on aesthetic/cosmetic procedures performed in 2011. Accessed February 16, 2014. Available from: http://www.isaps.org/Media/Default/global-statistics/ISAPS-Results-Procedures-2011.pdf.
8. Callaghan GM, Lopez A, Wong L, Northcross J, Anderson KR. Predicting consideration of cosmetic surgery in a college population: A continuum of body image disturbance and the importance of coping strategies. Body Image 2011;8:267-74. Doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.04.002. [DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.04.002]
9. Brown A, Furnham A, Glanville L, Swami V. Factors that affect the likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Aesthet Surg J 2007;27:501-8. doi: 10.1016/j.asj.2007.06.004. [DOI:10.1016/j.asj.2007.06.004]
10. Swami V. Body appreciation, media influence, and weight status predict consideration of cosmetic surgery among female undergraduates. Body Image 2009;6:315-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.07.001. [DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.07.001]
11. Markey CN, Markey PM. Correlates of young women's interest in obtaining cosmetic surgery. Sex Roles 2009;61:158-66. DOI: 10.1007/s11199-009-9625-5. [DOI:10.1007/s11199-009-9625-5]
12. Park LE, Calogero RM, Harwin MJ, DiRaddo AM. Predicting interest in cosmetic surgery: interactive effects of appearance-based rejection sensitivity and negative appearance comments. Body Image 2009;6:186-93. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.02.003. [DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.02.003]
13. Schmalz DL. 'I feel fat': weight-related stigma, body esteem, and BMI as predictors of perceived competence in physical activity. Obes Facts 2010;3:15-21. doi: 10.1159/000273210. [DOI:10.1159/000273210]
14. Swami V, Campana ANNB, Ferreira L, Barrett S, Harris AS, Fernandes MdCGC. The Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale: Initial examination of its factor structure and correlates among Brazilian adults. Body Image 2011;8:179-85. [DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.01.001]
15. Koyuncu M, Tok S, Canpolat AM, Catikkas F. Body image satisfaction and dissatisfaction, social physique anxiety, self-esteem, and body fat ratio in female exercisers and nonexercisers. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal 2010;38:561-70. Doi: 10.2224/sbp.2010.38.4.561. [DOI:10.2224/sbp.2010.38.4.561]
16. Swami V, Hwang CS, Jung J. Factor structure and correlates of the acceptance of cosmetic surgery scale among South Korean university students. Aesthet Surg J 2012;32:220-9. doi: 10.1177/1090820X11431577. [DOI:10.1177/1090820X11431577]
17. Menzel JE, Sperry SL, Small B, Thompson JK, Sarwer DB, Cash TF. Internalization of appearance ideals and cosmetic surgery attitudes: A test of the tripartite influence model of body image. Sex Roles 2011;65:469-77. Doi: 10.1007/s11199-011-9983-7. [DOI:10.1007/s11199-011-9983-7]
18. Slevec J, Tiggemann M. Attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women: Body image, aging anxiety, and the media. Psychol Women Q 2010;34:65-74. Doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01542.x. [DOI:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01542.x]
19. Sperry S, Thompson JK, Sarwer DB, Cash TF. Cosmetic surgery reality TV viewership: Relations with cosmetic surgery attitudes, body image, and disordered eating. Ann Plast Surg 2009;62:7-11. Doi: 10.1097/sap.0b013e31817e2cb8 . [DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31817e2cb8]
20. Nerini A, Matera C, Stefanile C. Psychosocial predictors in consideration of cosmetic surgery among women. Aesthetic Plast Surg 2014;38:461-6. doi: 10.1007/s00266-014-0294-6. [DOI:10.1007/s00266-014-0294-6]
21. Matera C, Nerini A, Stefanile C. The role of peer influence on girls' body dissatisfaction and dieting. Revue Européenne De Psychologie Appliquée/european Review of Applied Psychology 2013;63:67-74 doi: 10.1016/j.erap.2012.08.002..
22. Derenne JL, Beresin EV. Body image, media, and eating disorders. Acad Psychiatry 2006;30:257-61. doi: 10.1176/appi.ap.30.3.257. [DOI:10.1176/appi.ap.30.3.257]
23. Veale D. Advances in a cognitive behavioural model of body dysmorphic disorder. Body image 2004;1:113-25. Doi: 10.1016/s1740-1445(03)00009-3. [DOI:10.1016/S1740-1445(03)00009-3]
24. Cash TF, Pruzinsky T. Future challenges for body image theory, research, and clinical practice. Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice 2002:509-16.
25. Rosen LH, Underwood MK. Facial attractiveness as a moderator of the association between social and physical aggression and popularity in adolescents. J Sch Psychol 2010;48:313-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2010.03.001. [DOI:10.1016/j.jsp.2010.03.001]
26. von Soest T, Kvalem IL, Roald HE, Skolleborg KC. The effects of cosmetic surgery on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2009;62:1238-44. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2007.12.093. [DOI:10.1016/j.bjps.2007.12.093]
27. Salehahmadi Z, Rafie SR. Factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in bushehr, southern iran. World J Plast Surg 2012;1:99-106.
28. Dorneles de Andrade D. On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Reprod Health Matters 2010;18:74-83. doi: 10.1016/S0968-8080(10)35519-4. [DOI:10.1016/S0968-8080(10)35519-4]
29. Adib-Hajbaghery M, Houshmand M. Women's experience of making decision to do liposuction surgery: A qualitative study. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci) 2013;17:252-62.
30. Cabness J. The psychosocial dimensions of hysterectomy: private places and the inner spaces of women at midlife. Soc Work Health Care 2010;49:211-26. doi: 10.1080/00981380903426798. [DOI:10.1080/00981380903426798]
31. Markley Rountree M, Davis L. A dimensional qualitative research approach to understanding medically unnecessary aesthetic surgery. Psychology & Marketing 2011;28:1027-43. Doi: 10.1002/mar.20426. [DOI:10.1002/mar.20426]
32. Elo S, Kyngas H. The qualitative content analysis process. J Adv Nurs 2008;62:107-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x]
33. Zhang Y, Wildemuth BM. Qualitative analysis of content. In: Wildemuth BM. Applications of social research methods to questions in information and library science. California: Greenwood Publishing Group; 2009. p. 308-19.
34. Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today 2004;24:105-12. Doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001. [DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001]
35. Guba EG, Lincoln YS. Fourth generation evaluation. Sage; 1989.
36. Mokhtari M, Enayat H. Role of Gender Attitudes in Formation of Women's Body Image (A Case Study of Women Under Cosmetic Surgery in Shiraz) Journal of Woman in Development and Politics 2011:9:67-87.
37. Powell-Hicks A. Body Objectification and Elective Cosmetic Procedures in African American Women. Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects. 2011.
38. Campana ANNB, Ferreira L, Tavares MdCGC. Associations and differences between men and women on the acceptance of cosmetic plastic surgery in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica 2012;27:108-14. [DOI:10.1590/S1983-51752012000100018]
39. Swami V, Frederick DA, Aavik T, Alcalay L, Allik J, Anderson D, Andrianto S, Arora A, Brannstrom A, Cunningham J, Danel D, Doroszewicz K, Forbes GB, Furnham A, Greven CU, Halberstadt J, Hao S, Haubner T, Hwang CS, Inman M, Jaafar JL, Johansson J, Jung J, Keser A, Kretzschmar U, Lachenicht L, Li NP, Locke K, Lonnqvist JE, Lopez C, Loutzenhiser L, Maisel NC, McCabe MP, McCreary DR, McKibbin WF, Mussap A, Neto F, Nowell C, Alampay LP, Pillai SK, Pokrajac-Bulian A, Proyer RT, Quintelier K, Ricciardelli LA, Rozmus-Wrzesinska M, Ruch W, Russo T, Schutz A, Shackelford TK, Shashidharan S, Simonetti F, Sinniah D, Swami M, Vandermassen G, van Duynslaeger M, Verkasalo M, Voracek M, Yee CK, Zhang EX, Zhang X, Zivcic-Becirevic I. The attractive female body weight and female body dissatisfaction in 26 countries across 10 world regions: results of the international body project I. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2010;36:309-25. doi: 10.1177/0146167209359702. [DOI:10.1177/0146167209359702]
40. Darisi T, Thorne S, Iacobelli C. Influences on decision-making for undergoing plastic surgery: a mental models and quantitative assessment. Plast Reconstr Surg 2005;116:907-16. [DOI:10.1097/01.PRS.0000177691.81162.e5]
41. Saucier MG. Midlife and beyond: Issues for aging women. Journal of Counseling & Development 2004;82:420-5. Doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00329.x. [DOI:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00329.x]
42. Didie ER, Sarwer DB. Factors that influence the decision to undergo cosmetic breast augmentation surgery. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2003;12:241-53. doi: 10.1089/154099903321667582. [DOI:10.1089/154099903321667582]
43. Edmonds A. No universo da beleza: notas de campo sobre cirurgia plástica no Rio de Janeiro. Nu & vestido: dez antropólogos revelam a cultura do corpo carioca Rio de Janeiro: Record 2002:189-261.
44. Ward CM. Consenting and consulting for cosmetic surgery. Br J Plast Surg 1998;51:547-50. Doi: 10.1016/s0007-1226(98)90042-x. [DOI:10.1016/S0007-1226(98)90042-X]
45. Calogero R, Pina A, Park L, Rahemtulla Z. The role of sexual objectification in college women's cosmetic surgery attitudes. Sex Roles 2010;63:32-41. Doi: 10.1007/s11199-010-9759-5. [DOI:10.1007/s11199-010-9759-5]
46. Henderson-King D, Brooks KD. Materialism, sociocultural appearance messages, and paternal attitudes predict college women's attitudes about cosmetic surgery. Psychol Women Q 2009;33:133-42. Doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.01480.x . [DOI:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.01480.x]
47. Swami V, Chamorro-Premuzic T, Bridges S, Furnham A. Acceptance of cosmetic surgery: personality and individual difference predictors. Body Image 2009;6:7-13. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.09.004. [DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.09.004]
48. Kawecki AM. Beauty is pain: The physical, psychological, and emotional impact of female images in the media. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2010.
49. Stefanile C, Nerini A, Matera C. The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. Body Image 2014;11:370-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.06.005]
50. Sherry SB, Hewitt PL, Lee‐Baggley DL, Flett GL, Besser A. Perfectionism and Thoughts About Having Cosmetic Surgery Performed 1. Journal of applied biobehavioral research 2004;9:244-57. [DOI:10.1111/j.1751-9861.2004.tb00103.x]
51. Mirsardoo T, Kaldi A, Ataee B. Relationship between socio-cultural factors and women's tendecy toward beauty surgery among the women in Karaj. 2011. Woman& Study of Family 2011;3:145-64.
52. Rastegar KA, Kaveh M. Women and beauty project (subjective meanings of cosmetic surgery). Woman in Development and Politics (Women's Research) 2014;11:453-78.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mozaffari Niya N, Kazemi M, Abazari F, Ahmadi F. Iranians’ Perspective to Cosmetic Surgery: A Thematic Content Analysis for the Reasons. wjps. 2019; 8 (1) :69-77
URL: http://wjps.ir/article-1-272-en.html

Volume 8, Issue 1 (1-2019) Back to browse issues page
مجله جهانی جراحی پلاستیک World Journal of Plastic Surgery
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 32 queries by YEKTAWEB 3862